Various types of carpets were made here, including knotted carpets and flatwoven carpets with simple and complex compositions. The art of carpet making was passed down from generation to generation and was considered the most valuable heirloom. The traditional themes of Tabriz carpets are ornamental patterns with the following dominant background colors: cream, red or navy blue. Most typical sten for this school are the carpets that are grouped under the common name “Lachakturanj”. In the middle of the middle field and in the corners of the carpet (“lachak” (Persian: لچک triangle) are “turanj” (Persian: ترنج lemon). The Turanji in the middle of the carpet is a symbol for the moon, and the diamond pattern with the jagged leaves at the edges symbolizes the scales of the fish that rise to the surface of the water at midnight to admire the moon's reflection .The origin of this composition dates back to the 9th to 10th centuries. The themes of the Tabriz carpets often come from the works of the great oriental poets. The carpets often show scenes of falconry or images of a wild lion The carpet weavers draw inspiration from the hand-painted covers of old books when creating this or that ornamental pattern.
The name of these carpets is associated with the village of Heris or Herezi in the northeast of Tabriz. The stylistic decoration of the “Heris” carpets is quite unusual. The composition and the common shapes of the details were created on the basis of the composition “lachakturanj”, which is formed by leaf-shaped, curved and linear patterns. However, over time, the patterns of this composition became dotted and formed an independent carpet pattern. Normally, the carpet was woven from memory, without a sketch. This is not surprising, because from the beginning of the 16th century until today, the craftsmen of Heris traditionally only made this type of carpet, and they knew more designs and patterns. Incidentally, the inhabitants of Heris are also responsible for the production of flat-woven carpets carpets, palaces and kilims.
The “Dordfasil” (“Four Seasons” in Azerbaijani) is famous in Azerbaijan and other parts of Iran. The carpets of this type combine ancient elements of decorative art, traditional symbolism that goes back to the spiritual ideas of the early farming age, and religious scenes. Each of the four parts of the carpet is independent of its composition individual seasons and represent the images of the rural lifestyle. Autumn images: harvesting, tilling and sowing. Winter images: the farmers sweeping snow from the roofs, whipping the loaded donkeys to the village, in the foreground stands a worker with a spade, offering his services, while in the background the masterpiece of Azerbaijani architecture of the 15th century can be seen - the “Blue Mosque” in Tabriz. The spring landscape is in lively colors: blossoming trees, a shepherd with a flock of sheep, a girl listening to the sounds of his reed flute, and an old man with a tobacco pipe talking to a farmer. The summer picture: harvest, women and children tying sheaves and carrying them from the field. A camel carriage can be seen in the background. Despite the independence of the individual scenes, they are uniform in terms of composition and style. The illusion of space is achieved through the three-dimensional rendering of the theme motifs. The predominant colors are gold and red tones, which provide a common rhythm.
Trees or Tree of Life
The name of these carpets is due to their composition and not to the place of production. In other parts of Iran, these carpets are known by the name “Derakhti”, in Afghanistan “Bagghi” and in Azerbaijan “Agajly”. The composition of the middle field of the “Agajly” carpet consists largely of one or more trees and bushes n, rare cases from a group of trees. The trees are of different appearance. In ancient times, such compositions were based on historical events, love scenes, mythological and sometimes even religious and fanatic actions. The weeping willow was a symbol of love, the oak tree stood for strength and courage, and the pomegranate represented wealth and luck. Tabriz, Isfahan and Kashan used.
While the carpets with abstract patterns obviously predominated, there were also thematic carpets. The oldest of them is mentioned by Nizami, the outstanding Iranian poet of the 12th century, whose work was an inexhaustible source of inspiration not only for numerous miniature painters, but also for carpet art. One of the oldest thematic carpets was the “Zimistan” ( Winter) was the Sasanian carpet that the Arabs took with them as a trophy after the destruction of the Sasanian Empire. Unlike its name, this carpet is said to represent spring landscapes. It was called “Winter” because it was laid in the palace during the winter and its vibrant patterns illuminated the wintry interior with the lush colors of the blooming gardens and fields. Perhaps the Sasanian king Khosrov Parviz thought when he saw this carpet in winter and spring. The seasons are the most popular motifs for carpets. They usually form the background for the famous oriental buildings, including fortresses, palaces, mosques and temples -Nature blooms and withers, but the stones remain intact...Khosrau, Farhad, Shirin, BahrāmGōr, Iskander, Layla and Majn now - these figures created by Ferdosi, Nizami and Fizulig as well as scenes from their poems are often depicted on the carpets, the style of which is remembered by the miniatures of the painters of the famous school of Tabriz t, which flourished at the time of the Safavids. The themes of the carpets are diverse, the most popular being depictions of hunting and animals, literary plots and religious themes.
One of the traditional subjects is the image of Omar Khayam with his lover. Through the specific language of miniature painting, the carpet composition conveys the spirit and essence of Khayam's poetry, with great realistic power. The carpet carries the distichs and quatrains verses and sections from the poems of Ferdosi, Saadi, Hafez, Sheikh Attar, with some wise sayings legends and proverbs about love.
“Errors and errors excepted”